Quad-Motor vs. Twin-Motor EVs when compared


Previous this yr, Rivian expanded its plant in Customary, Illinois by means of just about 20% to fabricate its Enduro force unit. It’s an about-face from the force devices equipped by means of Bosch in Rivian’s Quad-Motor fashions, and will have to lend a hand mitigate the bottlenecks to ramping manufacturing of the R1T journey pickup truck, R1S three-row SUV, and EDV electrical supply van

Provided within the EDV and Rivian’s new Twin-Motor fashions, the Enduro force unit used to be designed and advanced in space to be extra environment friendly, more economical, and higher insulated from provide chain shocks that quaked the trade all over the pandemic, proper as Rivian started manufacturing in 2021. 

Rivian purchased the forlorn Mitsubishi plant for $16.5 million in 2017 and now churns out each Quad Motor and Twin Motor fashions. A contemporary excursion of the 4-million-square-foot facility showcased the 620,000-square-foot enlargement had to produce Enduro, and the way that force unit will permit manufacturing for a more economical R2 platform, slated to be advanced at a brand new plant in Georgia as early as 2026. 

For now, its Customary plant is on tempo to fabricate 52,000 Rivians this yr, with a goal of 150,000 devices in the end. Its passenger automobiles will probably be introduced with both the 4 motors advanced by means of Bosch within the Quad Motor setup or the Normalized [ahem] Twin Motor setup. Because the starting of this yr, the EDV solely makes use of the Enduro single-motor force unit at the entrance axle. 

Right here’s an outline of the Enduro force unit and Rivian’s Twin-Motor fashions. 

Rivian plant in Normal, Illinois, manufacturing its Enduro drive unit

Rivian plant in Customary, Illinois, production its Enduro force unit

Rivian Twin-Motor availability

  • Twin-Motor fashions bought with Usual, Huge, and drawing close Max Pack battery sizes

  • Efficiency Twin-Motor bought with Huge and Max Packs (to be had q4)

  • Usual Pack to be made with lithium iron phosphate cells, however has no unencumber date

  • Each and every Quad-Motor so far has been bought with the Huge Pack; no different pack dimension is obtainable

As of now, Rivian has most effective bought the R1T and R1S as Quad-Motor fashions with the Huge Pack. Orders for the R1T Twin-Motor and Efficiency Twin-Motor with the Max Pack are open. The R1S Max Pack possibility will probably be introduced at the configurator q4. 

The Usual Pack holds probably the most promise in the case of potency. With its LFP chemistry and the Enduro force unit, the EDV used to be 35% extra environment friendly than earlier builds with the 135-kwh battery pack and the Bosch motor unit, consistent with Rivian CEO RJ Scaringe. First deliveries of fashions with the Usual Pack are anticipated early in 2024.  

It continues to be noticed how lengthy Rivian will stay providing the costlier Quad-Motor setup.  

Rivian R1T and R1S Dual-Motor spec chart

Rivian R1T and R1S Twin-Motor spec chart

Rivian Twin Motor pricing

  • R1T Twin-Motor Usual Pack $74,800, together with $1,800 vacation spot

  • R1T Twin-Motor Huge Pack provides $6,000 to $80,800

  • R1T Twin-Motor Max Pack prices $16,000 extra to $90,800

  • Efficiency Twin-Motor Huge Pack provides $5,000 to $85,800

  • Efficiency Twin-Motor Max Pack prices $95,800

  • R1T Quad-Motor Huge Pack prices $88,800

The Max Pack improve represents the largest bounce in Rivian’s pricing construction, at $16,000. That makes each the Twin-Motor and Efficiency Twin-Motor costlier than the Quad Motor. 

The R1S three-row SUV is $5,000 extra around the board, however the Max Pack comes on-line within the configurator q4.  

Rivian Enduro drive unit components

Rivian Enduro force unit elements

Rivian Quad-Motor vs. Twin-Motor design 

  • Enduro Twin-Motor force devices weigh about 220 kilos

  • Quad-Motor rear force unit weighs 320 kilos; Quad entrance weights 275 kilos 

  • Enduro force devices are smaller, lighter, and extra environment friendly

The mechanical distinction between the Rivian Enduro force unit and the Bosch unit comes right down to dimension, price, and potency. The Quad-Motor devices space two motors and tow tools units in every unit, leading to greater and longer casings. The rear-axle quad unit measures 135 mm lengthy, whilst the entrance measures 110 mm lengthy, consistent with Mason Verbridge, Rivian’s main force unit engineer. With mounts and prime voltage cables, the rear-axle quad unit weighs about 320 kilos, and about 275 kilos up entrance. 

In contrast, every Enduro unit weighs about 220 kilos. For Twin-Motor fashions that provides as much as a weight financial savings of about 155 kilos. Each and every pound issues, even for an R1T Twin Motor Efficiency with a curb weight of about 6,750 kilos. 

There are basic physics benefits of simply having one motor, one gearset, one mainly rotating meeting,” Verbridge defined. “With a Quad you might have two tools units, two motors, all of the bearings, all of the windage losses of double that rotating meeting.”

Rivian designed and housed the inverter, motor, and gearbox in a single casing, as an alternative of separate sealed entities that get bolted in combination. Necessarily, there are fewer portions to gather, with much less weight and not more redundancy.

“Elementary philosophy is whenever you clear up necessities of all 3 subsystems then it makes the whole lot a lot more straightforward,” he defined. 

 

Rivian Enduro drive unit assembly

Rivian Enduro force unit meeting

Rivian Enduro drive unit inverter components

Rivian Enduro force unit inverter elements

Rivian Enduro drive unit stator components

Rivian Enduro force unit stator elements

Rivian Enduro rotor components

Rivian Enduro rotor elements

The core good thing about growing its personal motors comes from the data of the right way to program and optimize the motors from the beginning, as an alternative of atmosphere a goal for what Rivian sought after the motors to do from Bosch then adjusting it backward and forward to get it proper for the precise use case. 

As an example, the inverters changing DC from the battery to AC for the motor vary in accordance with the axle in Twin-Motor fashions. There’s a silicon carbide energy module for the entrance unit inverter however a less-expensive silicon energy module for the rear inverter. Silicon carbide has an potency of greater than 99% in comparison to about 98% potency with silicon, consistent with Silva Hiti, Rivian senior director of electrical energy conversion. At height potency, Hiti stated this interprets to a few.5% extra vary than if Rivian used silicon energy modules for each inverters. It makes extra sense to make use of extra environment friendly (however costlier) silicon carbide at the entrance unit this is used extra in Twin-Motor fashions. 

“By the point we got here to Enduro we understood the ones use circumstances tremendous smartly,” Verbridge stated. “If you already know precisely what the motor must do, you already know the place you’ll truly dial in and prioritize being environment friendly in those spaces on that running map.” 

Rivian plant in Normal, Illinois, manufacturing its Enduro drive unit

Rivian plant in Customary, Illinois, production its Enduro force unit

Rivian Quad-Motor vs. Twin-Motor force modes

  • Each and every Rivian passenger car has All-Goal, Snow, All-Terrain, and Towing modes

  • Efficiency Twin-Motor provides Game mode

  • Quad-Motor fashions upload Preserve in addition to All-Terrain sub-modes, akin to Flow, Rally, Rock Move slowly, Cushy Sand

Not like the Quad-Motor setup, the Rivian Twin-Motor does now not have a Preserve mode. As an alternative, the default All-Goal mode decouples the rear axle to run as a front-wheel-drive truck for higher potency in maximum eventualities. However the rear axle powers on-demand as smartly, now not simply with a button push. So if the motive force flooring it, the torque bias can shift from 100/0 to about 45/55 in a blink. 

All-Goal within the Quad-Motor stays attached, until Preserve mode is chosen. So the default All-Goal mode within the Twin serves a identical serve as as Preserve within the Quad as the best atmosphere, proscribing parasitic losses. Rivian would now not say if all that torque at the entrance axle of the Efficiency Twin-Motor will bite via tires as excessively as Preserve mode does within the Quad, nevertheless it shouldn’t be as dramatic. 

The Enduro ultimate force ratio is less than the Quad, which is 12.9:1 in any respect 4 corners. The Twin-Motor has a last tools ratio of eleven.04:1 within the entrance and 13.7:1 within the rear. Because it disconnects the rear axle and doesn’t have the additional surge of energy from Game mode—in maximum riding eventualities with the exception of when ground it—there shouldn’t be as a lot asymmetric put on at the tires as there’s in Preserve mode within the Quad. 

Then there’s Game mode within the Efficiency Twin-Motor. See extra underneath. 

Rivian plant in Normal, Illinois, manufacturing its Enduro drive unit

Rivian plant in Customary, Illinois, production its Enduro force unit

Rivian Twin-Motor efficiency

  • R1T Twin-Motor makes 533 hp, 610 lb-ft of torque; it hits 60 mph in 4.5 seconds

  • R1T Efficiency Twin-Motor makes 665 hp, 829 lb-ft; it hits 60 mph in 3.5 seconds

  • R1T Quad-Motor makes 835 hp, 908 lb-ft; hits 60 mph in 3.0 seconds

In back-to-back checking out on an oval loop of the R1T Efficiency Twin-Motor and the R1T Quad Motor, the Efficiency Twin-Motor had a slight lag sooner than the whole energy got here on, however its surge to 60 mph in 3.5 seconds used to be nonetheless sufficient to drop my intestine. There’s a lot of energy, particularly for a car this dimension and form. We didn’t get to check the usual Twin-Motor. Believe the Efficiency Twin-Motor greater than a part step to the quad. 

In Game mode, each force devices stay engaged. 

In a temporary off-road demo, the Twin-Motor tackled the similar stumbling blocks with the similar competency because the Quad Motor. The larger distinction in dealing with and four-wheel force within the Quad as an alternative of all-wheel force within the Twin comes from how torque will get routed to the wheels. The Twin depends upon brake-based torque vectoring, while the Quad makes use of the 4 motors to apportion torque to every wheel. It’s a greater enjoy in spirited on-road riding and extra bold off-road eventualities, however the Twin is so succesful that most effective in back-to-back checking out does it really feel a grade decrease. 

Rivian plant in Normal, Illinois, manufacturing its Enduro drive unit

Rivian plant in Customary, Illinois, production its Enduro force unit

Rivian Quad-Motor vs. Twin-Motor towing

  • R1T tows as much as 11,000 kilos with both force device

  • R1S tows as much as 7,700 kilos with both force device

  • Be expecting a forty five% battery vary drop when towing, topic to many variables

Each force techniques tow the same quantity: The R1T tows as much as 11,000 kilos; the R1S tows as much as 7,700 kilos. Towing comes usual with a 7-pin harness. It doesn’t have a load-distributing hitch, however Rivian says trailer sway mitigation is constructed into the instrument. The brake controller turns on from the appropriate guidance wheel regulate or within the touchscreen.

We rode alongside in an R1T Efficiency Twin-Motor towing a 9,800-pound electrical supply van on a trailer. It used to be massive, looming over us, as though a cinder block is usually a primary mast. The pull used to be noticeable, as used to be the wobble with some wind on an overpass. Energy used to be ample, braking by no means felt taxed, however the sheer dimension of the van at the trailer used to be obvious during the demo. I will’t believe another towing eventualities with that roughly aero profile. 

Whilst in park, it may be adjusted to the low floor clearance atmosphere of 10.1 inches for larger potency at the freeway, or stay in the usual 11.3-inch atmosphere. Drivers too can modify the damping between Cushy and Stiff. 

Rivian estimates that placing it into Tow mode will decrease the estimated vary by means of 45%, however there are such a large amount of variables at play that it’s a guesstimate in accordance with riding profile, trailer weight, and avenue prerequisites, amongst different issues. One in every of Rivian’s key benefits is how appropriately it calculates estimated vary, and a pending towing replace anticipated within the subsequent two months will have to observe that accuracy to towing. It’ll assist you to input the trailer weight or the device will calculate the trailer weight to create other trailer profiles, and the variability estimates will replicate that profile and/or weight and be told over the years to supply extra correct estimates. The replace will even issue in additional traction-based eventualities by means of enabling drivers to tow in Off-road and Snow mode in each Quad- and Twin-Motor fashions. The replace will even turn on mattress digicam angles for the R1T. 

For tow mirrors, glance to the aftermarket. For many different issues, Rivian seems to have it lined. 



Rivian supplied Inexperienced Automobile Studies an evening of accommodation and a manufacturing unit discuss with for an up-close have a look at the Enduro force unit.

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